Ruth M. Phil This is a very interesting topic. Dualism is the first stage. Dualistic thinkers often see things from outside the box and look to authority figures for answers.
The 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
Critical Thinking and the Three Stages of Cognitive Development – Creativity and Critical Thinking
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated December 07, Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that intelligence changes as children grow. A child's cognitive development is not just about acquiring knowledge, the child has to develop or construct a mental model of the world.
Cognitive Development in 3-5 Year Olds
Around the age of 11 or 12, children learn to think about abstract concepts. They complete what Piaget termed the concrete operational period and enter the formal operation period. The hallmark achievements of concrete operations is that children display logical thinking, can seriate arrange in a series without trial and error, are able to conserve number, mass, and volume, and demonstrate a more strategic and methodical approach to problems.
A critical thinking framework developed by psychologists can help teach mental skills necessary for our times. The coronavirus has not only decimated our populations, its spread has also attacked the very nature of truth and stoked inherent tensions between many different groups of people, both at local and international levels. Spawning widespread conspiracy theories and obfuscation by governments, the virus has also been a vivid demonstration of the need for teaching critical thinking skills necessary to survive in the 21st century. The stage theory of critical thinking development, devised by psychologists Linda Elder and Richard Paul , can help us gauge the sophistication of our current mental approaches and provides a roadmap to the thinking of others. The researchers identified six predictable levels of critical thinkers, from ones lower in depth and effort to the advanced mind-masters, who are always steps ahead.