Scuba diving is a popular recreational and professional activity with inherent risks. Complications related to barotrauma and decompression illness can pose significant morbidity to a diver's hearing and balance systems. The majority of dive-related injuries affect the head and neck, particularly the outer, middle and inner ear. Given the high incidence of otologic complications from diving, an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of otic pathology is a necessity. We performed a systematic and comprehensive literature review including the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of otologic pathology related to diving. This included inner, middle, and outer ear anatomic subsites, as well as facial nerve complications, mal de debarquement syndrome, sea sickness and fitness to dive recommendations following otologic surgery.
Superior Approach of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Review of the Literature
Literature Review |
Cesar R. He is also president of the International Association for the Philosophy of Sport. On Aug. Eduardo deftly drove the ball into the net to open the scoring. Yet, diving consistently occurs on fields all over the world at all levels of the game. Diving in soccer is a practice that is, at best, reluctantly tolerated and, at worst, accepted and even celebrated.
positive impacts of dive tourism
Introduction: Patients with prior primary spontaneous pneumothorax PSP frequently seek clearance to dive. Despite wide consensus in precluding compressed-air diving in this population, there is a paucity of data to support this decision. We reviewed the literature reporting the risk of PSP recurrence. Studies published in English reporting the recurrence rate after a first PSP were included.
The rationale for using HBO in acute traumatic ischemia is to increases tissue oxygen tensions in hypoxic tissues to levels which make it possible for the host responses to become functional. With HB0 at kPa the haemoglobin-borne oxygen content is increased only from 19,8 ml of oxygen per dl blood to 20,4 ml O2, whereas plasma and tissue oxygen tensions increase tenfold. The resulting effect is that oxygen diffusion distance from capillaries is increased by a threefold factor Krogh Sufficient oxygen becomes physically dissolved in plasma to keep tissues alive despite inadequate haemoglobin-borne oxygen delivery20' Oedema reduction secondary to vasoconstriction is the second important effect of hyperbaric oxygenation.