Deep-sea trench , also called oceanic trench , any long, narrow, steep-sided depression in the ocean bottom in which occur the maximum oceanic depths, approximately 7, to more than 11, metres 24, to 36, feet. They typically form in locations where one tectonic plate subducts under another. The deepest known depression of this kind is the Mariana Trench , which lies east of the Mariana Islands in the western North Pacific Ocean ; it reaches 11, metres 36, feet at its deepest point. Deep-sea trenches generally lie seaward of and parallel to adjacent island arcs or mountain ranges of the continental margins.
ALL YOUR PAPER NEEDS COVERED 24/7
Mud volcano - Wikipedia
A mud volcano or mud dome is a landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries , water and gases. Mud volcanoes are not true igneous volcanoes as they do not produce lava and are not necessarily driven by magmatic activity. Mud volcanoes may range in size from merely 1 or 2 meters high and 1 or 2 meters wide, to meters high and 10 kilometers wide. The mud produced by mud volcanoes is mostly formed as hot water, which has been heated deep below the Earth's surface, begins to mix and blend with subterranean mineral deposits, thus creating the mud slurry exudate. This material is then forced upwards through a geological fault or fissure due to local subterranean pressure imbalances. Mud volcanoes are associated with subduction zones and about have been identified on or near land. The temperature of any given active mud volcano generally remains fairly steady and is much lower than the typical temperatures found in igneous volcanoes.
Chapter 5: Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy is the area of geology that deals with sedimentary rocks and layers and how they relate to geologic time; it is a significant part of historical geology. As you learned in Chapters 2 and 4, one of the primary goals of studying sedimentary rocks is to determine their depositional environment; stratigraphy is no different. Stratigraphy is mainly studied through outcrop observations, the collection of sediment cores, and seismic surveys. Sediment cores are mostly collected from the ocean floor by organizations like the International Ocean Discovery Program IODP using a ship dedicated to drilling Figure 5. Geologists can then study the collected sediment Figure 5.
Zheng, Z. A numerical model to estimate the effects of variable sedimentation rates on methane hydrate formation—Application to the ODP Site on Blake ridge, southeastern north American continental margin. Iron shuttle controls on molybdenum, arsenic, and antimony enrichment in Pliocene methane-seep carbonates from the southern Western Foothills, Southwestern Taiwan. Marine and Petroleum Geology , Environments favoring dolomite formation at cold seeps: A case study from the Gulf of Mexico.