Major depressive disorder MDD , also known simply as depression , is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood. Low self-esteem , loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause are common symptoms. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the person's reported experiences and a mental status examination. The most common time of onset is in a person's 20s and 30s,   with females affected about twice as often as males. The term major depressive disorder was introduced by a group of US clinicians in the mids.
Literature review - Anxiety and Depression in the Workplace
Literature Review Examples - A Guide to Writing
Great Depression , worldwide economic downturn that began in and lasted until about It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world, sparking fundamental changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policy, and economic theory. Although it originated in the United States , the Great Depression caused drastic declines in output, severe unemployment , and acute deflation in almost every country of the world. Its social and cultural effects were no less staggering, especially in the United States, where the Great Depression represented the harshest adversity faced by Americans since the Civil War.
[Theoretical models of causative factors in depression: a review of the literature for nursing]
A literature review was conducted to investigate the relationship between low vitamin D concentration and depression and to report on the current knowledge about the assessment and treatment of low vitamin D in individuals with depression. Our literature review found substantial evidence for a significant relationship between depression and vitamin D deficiency but also highlighted the need for more studies to establish the direction of causality in the association between vitamin D deficiency and depression, and to determine the best preventative and treatment strategies for hypovitaminosis D in patients with depression. The possibility of a role of vitamin D in psychiatric disorders is suggested by regionspecific expression of vitamin D receptors VDR in the cingulate cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, substantia nigra, amygdala, and hippocampus [ 1 ]. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence of possible neuroprotective roles that vitamin D may play through its effects on inflammation [ 4 - 6 ]. Certainly, growing body of data suggests that upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain may be associated with depression [ 5 ] and vitamin D may well be one of modulator in the association between depression and inflammatory response through its effect on the immune system [ 7 , 8 ].
Postpartum depression PPD , also called postnatal depression , is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth , which can affect both sexes. While the exact cause of PPD is unclear, the cause is believed to be a combination of physical, emotional, genetic, and social factors. Among those at risk, providing psychosocial support may be protective in preventing PPD.